Formula Vee: Budget Open Wheel Racing

Add the words “open-wheel” to any form of racing, and you can usually tack on a few more zeros to the price tag. Inherently pricey, due to low-production numbers, and specialized construction — open-wheel cars often embody the leading edge of chassis design, geometry, and suspension. But, if you are sick of working around a gutted body, there is a another affordable option.


Photo source: Dana Quinteros.

The Volkswagen Beetle is not a performance car, and no one will argue that point for very long. However, it offers many design foundations and features that lend it to modification into one of the most modular race car packages. In the deserts, a Meyer’s Manx dune buggy won the first Mexican 1000, on the drag strip gutted Type 1 Beetles set blistering 60-foot times with a little coaxing from pumped up engines, and on the road course we find something different all together.

The Formula Vee has been a staple in grassroots level road racing since 1965. These humble little cars offer tight, competitive, open-wheel racing on a shoestring budget. Lets have a look back at the history and design of these lovable cars.

Where It All Began


Vintage print magazine advert for Formula Vee kits. Photo source: spencerfvee.

The VW Beetle had been imported since the late 1950s, but naturally it took the American market a while to warm up to the idea of a little German car. However, once it became a pop culture fixture on American highways, the intervention of the geared and grease-monkey was inevitable, and the Formula Vee was born in 1963. However, it wasn’t originally developed to be it’s own stand-alone class but rather as an alternative to the 1ooocc Ford-powered Formula Junior race cars.

While the VW-powered Formula Junior didn’t work out as planned, but it did set the course for the formal Formula Vee classification. Built around the specifications for a standard 1963 Type 1 Beetle, the rules restricted the powerplant to the 1200 cc version of the air-cooled flat four engine. Because the Type 1 is consists of a “pan” with a central backbone or tunnel, the car ultimately acts as a donor for its driveline and suspension, but little else.


Technical art for the Zink Formula Vee. Photo source: spencerfvee.

The prototype for the Formula Vee, the VW-based 1958 Formula Junior  built for Hubert Brundage, an early Porsche dealer in Florida. While not truly competitive in its class it did lead to others building their own examples. A class for these cars was created by the SCCA, updating the rules to be consistent with the 1963 models. The first official running of the new class ran at the Daytona International Speedway in August of 1963. The appeal of these cars not only resided in their affordability, but in the accessibility of kits. By 1965 1,500 Formula Vee racecars were competing in the US alone.

In an era where do-it-yourself really meant something — and stood for American pride — would-be race car drivers at that time could pick a kit from a multitude of suppliers like  Formcar, Zink, and Autodynamics. With a tubular chassis, and some fiberglass body panels they could embark on a garage project unlike any other.

Today’s chassis designs remain straightforward tube frame designs. Rules even limit the number, location, and rivets fastening any metal panels to the chassis so it remains a tube-frame design and doesn’t evolved into a monocoque.  With the front suspension established by the VW beam axle and the rear suspension defined by the swing arm axles, any chassis improvements over the years have been small and incremental.

The Rule Book: Engines


The classic air-cooled VW engine is 4-cylinders, and horizontally opposed. Photo source: North East Formula Vee.

The rules of Formula Vee are fairly simple — and take the model of a limited class structure — meaning, if a modification is not specifically listed as allowed, then it isn’t allowed. We spoke with some veterans of the class to get a better understanding of the constraints.

Dietmar Bauerle is a Formula Vee Racer hailing from Canada. Since retiring from his day job he has taken up his hobby as a business, and is now an authority on engine building for this long-lived class. His business, Quixote Racing, supplies power plants to racers across the country. Because the tribal knowledge surrounding air-cooled VW engines is something that is becoming more and more rare, we asked Bauerle to fill in a few gaps.

What are the general restrictions on engine building in Formula Vee?


Left case half with bottom end assembly in bearing journal. Photo source: Wayne Penrose Volkswagen.

Dietmar Bauerle: To begin with, Formula Vee is a spec class. You start with the premise that everything in the engine is stock. You may lighten and balance the crankshaft, flywheel, and connecting rods. Blueprinting is allowed, but you are restricted on the size of the cylinders — they have to be 1200 cc stock, but you can bore them to a specified maximum size retaining stock pistons. You have to run either a piston that has a 2 mm or a 2.5 mm ring groove. Rings and bearings are free.

Since the 1200 VW parts are among the oldest, is availability getting scarce?

DB: Over the last few years we started using the universal case — so you’re allowed to run the 1600 case, but in order to run the 1200 barrels you have to have a spacer or some sort of divider. We use a rubber O-ring that fits around the barrel and into the case that locates the cylinders.


Cast iron cylinders seat into the magnesium or aluminum case with some O-rings for sealing. Photo source: Wayne Penrose Volkswagen.

They are all single port cylinder heads, and they’re still around. They made millions of these cars, and you really don’t go through heads very often. There are some builders who specialize in head work … it’s very time consuming and it’s a combination of the heads manifold and carburetor.

What sort of head work can be done to increase power?

DB: Deck height is established, you can not go less than .039 average across all four, your combustion chamber volume is limited to 43 cc average, but you are allowed to port and polish. However, you are restricted by the opening not only at the manifold, but also at the valve seat. You are restricted to a 31.5 mm intake and 30 mm exhaust valves.


Single port cylinder heads use a shared runner to feed both intake ports. Photo source: Wayne Penrose Volkswagen.

The carburetor is restricted to a 28 PCI which came off the 36-horse, and you are allowed to modify certain components such as the venturi, throttle shaft up to a certain dimension — everything is specified and spelled out. There is nothing that allows you to do things other than what is specified.

Cam is restricted to stock, you can have it profiled to maximum specs,  as specified by VW in their official shop manual. The engine starts off as a 40-horse, and it ends up putting out (depending on whose dyno) around 60 horsepower.

Are these engines high strung, requiring a lot of maintenance? 

DB: I tell my customers do 10 weekends, then bring it back. That way it saves the extra expense — I may have to polish the crank as opposed to grind it, the valve seats may only need to be touched up. I had one customer who did 20 weekends, and when I took the engine apart I looked at the bearings and they were immaculate.

Formula Vee engines require little maintenance during the season. Outside of setting valve clearnace between sessions (a 10-minute job) and changing the oil and expecting the spark plugs, there’s little that needs to be done.

The Rule Book: Chassis


Kim Madrid is a fixture in Formula Vee, known for her assertive driving, and pink mohawk she is often found at the front. Her daughter, Dana, shoots compelling photos of open-wheel racing. Photo source: Dana Quinteros.

The running gear of a Formula Vee is similarly minimalist as the engine. A fabricated tubular frame and some sheetmetal or fiberglass body work encapsulate the driver, but suspension, brakes, steering, and all the associated geometry is OEM Volkswagen.

The mid-engine layout of a Formula Vee echoes the weight distribution of top-tier open-wheel race cars. Employing a ‘swingaxle’ transaxle, where the axles articulate at an inner pivot using a side gear and fulcrum plate arrangement, but remain fixed at the outer. Only the ring gear needs to be flipped over for the transaxle to work in a mid-engine location. This system is rugged simplicity at it’s finest, but forces travel to be limited carefully due to the drastic camber change throughout the rear suspension stroke. Early cars utilized a Z-bar, similar to what VW had installed in 1967 Beetles. The solution developed in the early 1970s was the single coilover zero-roll rear suspension, which remains the standard to this day.


The swingaxle transaxle is flipped, and its ring gear changed-over for the mid-engine orientation. The zero roll suspension is not installed in this image. Photo source: Draken.

“The transaxles are bulletproof with only 60 horsepower, mine has been in my car since 1984 and I haven’t touched it. You can run two different ring and pinions — most of the time people will run a short box. You have three gear options for third, one for first, second, and fourth,” Bauerle said.

The front end suspension employs the earlier link-pin design trailing arm design and torsion bar assembly. The VW beam suspension consists of two parallel tubes through which leaf packs of torsion bars run. To lower the ride height for stability and aerodynamics it is customary to remove one of the two leaf pack assemblies, and replace it with a solid internal swaybar.

There are a number of chassis designs available in Formula Vee, even some that fit larger drivers.

The steering assembly must remain stock, which means no rack and pinion — rather, an old-school worm gear steering box takes the place and makes for some hand over hand steering action. However, a fabricated Pitman arm and tubular linkages with rod ends can replace the stock VW items.

Lazer Formula Vee

There have been a multitude of chassis manufacturers over the decades, from known names like Lola to less-than-household marks like Lazer. The later of which has recently been re-invigorated by an entrepreneurial Fiat Chrysler Engineer, Barret Hendricks.


Later Formula Vees are known for the good looks, but also have tight cockpits. Photo source: Barret Hendricks.

“I originally got started with Formula Vee back in high school, when carts started getting too expensive. I rented a car and ended up buying the car I rented — I got hooked because it’s a great sport,” explained Hendricks. “I think the biggest complaint people have about the Lazer is the cockpit space. The space is supposed to be equivalent to most Formula Fords, so I think a race car should fit like a glove,” he continued.


One of the original Nardi-built VW-powered Formula Junior cars that led to the development of a seperate Formula Vee class. Photo source: Barret Hendricks.

Earlier Formula Vees are outdated by today’s standards and are typically run in a vintage class. Other are updated with the more current zero-roll rear suspension and more slippery body work and continue to race with the SCCA, however they’re often mixed with newer, more sophisticated and faster cars. “I would love to see more people come out and compete in Formula Vee, I think its a very comfortable class. The only problem is we are now running in mixed groups with SCCA which complicates the situation a lot — it’s pretty scary out there sometimes,” lamented Steve Davis of Formula

“Each one is a car in itself, Formcar was one of the first cars ever built — it’s not raced competitively any more but people still run them in vintage. The cars today — there’s the Lazer, Mysterian, Citation, they are all unique in themselves. The Lazer is one of the more aesthetically pleasing cars, but it takes a lot to make them work. The Vortech seems to be the fastest car, yet the Mysterians have won the runoffs. A lot of it depends on the driver and their size,” Bauerle concluded.

The Everyman’s Race Car And Class


Photo source: Dana Quinteros.

The competitors that make up a typical Formula Vee field are diverse, but all have a common interest, and share a camaraderie seldom found in other cutthroat racing fields. Men and women, young and old, all find enjoyment racing these economical, fast cars.

“It started off as a driver class to emphasize the ability of the driver, and it still is. It’s a very popular class, in some places it’s growing and other places it’s dwindling. It’s the cheapest form of racing — at least open-wheel,” Bauerle said.

Everything about the class is designed to make it affordable and accessible. There are no exotic specialty parts, and what tribal knowledge does exist is openly shared — for the most part. Teams look out for each other, and strive to build their community and foster a sense of family.


Formula Vee racers are known for being a good-natured bunch. Photo source: Dana Quinteros.

Bauerle relayed an anecdote of this very character, “In many ways it’s family-oriented — there was a race at Willow Springs where one of the guys went over the top of somebody else and literally tore off the right side of the car. Every Formula Vee racer that was there in some way or another helped put that car back together well enough that he could win the next day.”

Bauerle’s story about getting into racing is one shared by many. He grew up racing with his father in Canada before moving to San Diego in the late 1960s. After graduating from college, and a hiatus from ‘Vee, he decided to build his own car and become active in the community once again.


A pack of Formula Vee race cars lining up on the grid before a race. Photo source: Barret Hendricks.

“I started dabbling while still in high school, and then we moved to San Diego in ’68 and my dad had sold the car, but got hooked into SCCA and we started over again. He never really wanted to spend any money. Around ’74, I graduated from college and started thinking about building a car myself. I campaigned the Autodynamics car for a of couple years — but at 6-foot 1-inch tall, I never fit in the car, and came out of my first race (which I won) with black and blue ankles from the tie rods hitting them,” Bauerle recalled.

The Evolution of Formula Vee


Michael Varacins leads the pack into Two Turn during the 2014 SCCA Runoffs at Laguna Seca. Photo source: Dana Quinteros.

Formula Super Vee

As Formula Vee racers caught on, and sought to advance their sport, offshoots of the class began to develop. The most well-known of which is Super Vee, a class that borrowed many of the parts and concepts from Formula Vee while ramping up the power and expense.


Super Vee racecars came out of Europe and were much more advanced in terms of suspension, engine, aerodynamics, and driveline.

Formula Super Vee cars hit the scene in the 1970s and featured either air-cooled Type IV Volkswagen engines like those that powered the Porsche 914, 912E, and VW Buses, later to be replaced by the 1600 cc water-cooled Golf engine. Besides the engines, Super Vees primarily utilized racing components.  The only standard VW parts used were the front spindles, brake rotors and calipers, and gearbox case (when the class went to the water-cooled inline SOHC four, Golf aluminum radiators were specified). This class lasted 20 years with Volkswagen’s support but has almost zero presence today. However it spirited well-known drivers through the grid like Niki Lauda, Keke Rosberg, Michael Andretti, and Al Unser Jr.

Formula First

In recent years Formula Vee has given birth to a regional sect known as Formula First. “A number of years ago there was a group in the Midwest that decided Formula Vee was getting a little too expensive and the parts were getting hard to come by. They started a group called Formula First — the Formula First is a 1600 cc engine, dual port, and also a restricted class. They had a rule change where they could lengthen the car by two inches, that gave the taller driver the opportunity to race where as before they were limited,” explained Bauerle.

There is debate on whether this offshoot was a positive for the sport or not. In any case, the current demographics of up and coming racers don’t lend themselves to working on their cars.

“I have mixed emotions about it. I feel really loyal to Formula Vee, I love the class, and there’s argument that it could sort of dilute the class and take away competition, but they are only a regional class at this point,” Hendricks said. “I think the bigger tires and engine do attract the younger crowd. Maybe you can’t afford to get into Formula Ford, and Formula First is a little more similar than Formula Vee.” .



Micahel Varacins in practice for the 2014 SCCA Runoffs at Laguna Seca in a car designed and built by him and his father. Photo source: Dana Quinteros.

Formula Vee may not be the emerging technological wonder of budget racing, but it is an enduring class that offers opportunities to all. One would be hard-pressed to find an avenue into real road racing on a tighter budget.

“You can get a car for $5,000 to $6,000 that will be competitive if you take care of it. It may not be competitive the day you get it, but once you learn how to drive it you can be competitive,” Davis explained. “They’re very unique and tough to learn how to drive well — the good part is once you learn how to drive a Vee well you can virtually get into anything, and be decent at it,”


Vintage Formula Vee racing has become increasingly more popular, given the number of chassis from the 1960s and 1970s that are still available. Photo Source: Dana Quinteros.

The expenses are minimal, other than consumables like tires, which one can expect to go through in any racing class. Formula Vee is widely known as a fantastic stepping stone and learning tool. Some who get their feet wet racing these little VWs go on to other classes, while others spend decades in the class.

“A lot of people get started in Formula Vee, it’s an entry class that really demands that you are a decent driver and want to be up front. It’s a stepping stone for a lot of people to go into other things. Because it’s a momentum car … if you lose your momentum you’re done and can’t pick it up,” Bauerle emphasized.


Today’s Formula Vee race cars are as streamlined as possible to reduce drag. Note the bubble on the front to accomodate the steering box, the shrouds on the front beams, and the set-back dampers. Photo source: Dana Quinteros.

Like most forms of grassroots-level racing one can expect a support network of people who want to see you at the races, after all it’s about fun — this isn’t the Formula 1 world championships. “I think you learn so much more than just jumping into another class, I think that the competition that I’ve seen in Formula Vee is world-class, on and off the track,” concluded Hendricks.

Go out and search the classifieds, talk to racers, and attend  a race. Formula Vee may just be your avenue into real racing enjoyment.


Two more current-era Formula Vee race cars attack the Corkscrew at Laguna Seca. Photo source: Dana Quinteros.

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About the author

Trevor Anderson

Trevor Anderson comes from an eclectic background of technical and creative disciplines. His first racing love can be found in the deserts of Baja California. In 2012 he won the SCORE Baja 1000 driving solo from Ensenada to La Paz in an aircooled VW. Trevor is engaged with hands-on skill sets such as fabrication and engine building, but also the theoretical discussion of design and technology. Trevor has a private pilot's license and is pursuing an MFA in fine art - specifically researching the aesthetics of machines, high performance materials and their social importance to enthusiast culture.
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